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Enhancement & Care of Gemstones

Enhancement & Care of Gemstones

Unfortunately, gemstones don't come out of the ground ready to be set in jewellery. Raw crystals from the earth are usually called 'rough gemstones' (or just 'rough') and this is actually very apt - rough gems can look pretty rough!

To make sure each gemstone reaches its full potential, lapidaries and jewellers employ a variety of techniques. Some of these, like cutting and setting, are immediately visible, while others such as enhancements or treatments remain relatively unknown despite being used for thousands of years. Practiced in India for over 4,000 years, the earliest known gemstone enhancement is heating a gem to improve its colour. Oiling to improve a gem's clarity is another ancient technique that has been used for over 2,000 years.

Not all gemstone enhancements can trace their origins to antiquity, some such as the beryllium bulk diffusion of Sapphires and the physical vapour deposition (PVD) of Mystic Topaz, are the result of more recent innovations. In the gem industry, the term 'enhancements' sometimes exclusively refers to traditional techniques that are so common they are seldom mentioned, reserving 'treatments' for more modern methods. The problem is that this is not universal - both terms are often used to refer to the same processes.

Regardless of what they are called, all gemstone enhancements simply accentuate the beautiful end results of gemstones natural formation. Defined as any process other than cutting that improves a gem's appearance (e.g. colour, clarity, phenomena etc.), durability, value or availability, with the vast majority of gems enhanced in some way, these processes have become an important part of the modern gemstone industry. Given the prevalence of enhancements, one term that still has a universal meaning is 'natural'. A 'natural' gemstone is one that has not been enhanced or treated in anyway.

Enhancement Disclosure

The World Jewellery Confederation (CIBJO or Conf'd'ration Internationale de la Bijouterie, Joaillerie, Orf'vrerie, des Diamants, Perles et Pierres) is the organisation that records accepted trade practices and nomenclature for the global gem and jewellery industry. Under their guidelines, all jewellers should be aware of how the gems they sell are enhanced, disclosing this information to their customers. In a world where many enhancements are very difficult to detect (or even undetectable) using standard gemmological equipment, enhancement disclosure can be confusing for the consumer. Our threefold enhancement policy is designed to keep things simple, providing you all the information you need to make informed buying decisions:

  • We include a statement on every customer invoice advising you to always assume enhancements when purchasing our gemstone jewellery, directing you to this page for more information on what enhancements may have been applied to the gemstones you have purchased. This is not to say that every gem we sell is enhanced, we also sell 'natural' gemstones, it's just easier if you work off this assumption.
  • We only knowingly accept enhancements that are permanent with normal wear. The only exception is Emeralds, whose beauty is enhanced and easily maintained by oils or polymers. We get our information on gem enhancements from universities, gem laboratories, trade associations, regulatory bodies, professional journals, books, the internet as well as individual experts.
  • Gemstone enhancements can make gemstones more beautiful, affordable and even more durable. Despite this, some gems require special care. While this section includes some simple gem grooming do's and don'ts, the big table below shows the potential enhancements applied to each gem variety, their frequency, as well as any special care instructions.

Gem Care Do's & Don'ts

While one of the defining attributes of gemstones is durability, much as you wouldn't slip on Prada stilettos for a lively game of beach volleyball, following a few simple do's and don'ts will make sure your gemstones last for generations.

  • Do keep your gemstone jewellery in the separate compartments of a jewellery box or in cloth pouches, always storing your gem necklaces flat. When storing chains in pouches, leaving the catch just hanging out will reduce tangles.
  • Do gently wipe your jewellery with a lint-free cloth after each wearing to remove oils and salts.
  • Do periodically clean your jewellery. Rings can easily collect dust, soap and grime behind the setting if you wear them regularly. While a dirty gem will loose colour and brilliance, most gemstones are easily cleaned by soaking them in water with a little gentle soap. If especially dirty, use a very soft toothbrush to gently scrub behind the gem. Organic gems like Pearls or Amber should only be wiped clean with a moist cloth.
  • Do pull out a watch's crown to the setting position when storing them to save the battery.
  • Do listen to your jewellery. If you think a gem is loose in its setting, very gently tap it close to your ear. If you hear a 'rattle' the gem is definitely loose and will need to be repaired.
  • Do ask the seller about how to clean and care for the jewellery you have purchased.
  • Do take the time to read the following table.
  • Don't put on your jewellery before using cosmetics, hair spray or perfumes. Some gemstones are porous and may absorb chemicals that can discolour them.
  • Don't ever remove your jewellery by pulling on the gems as this can loosen their settings resulting in them falling out!
  • Don't ever store your jewellery in heaps as your gems can scratch each other. As almost every gemstone is harder than gold, silver or platinum, even the finish of your jewellery can be damaged if you throw your jewellery in a heap.
  • Don't wear your jewellery when playing sports, doing housework or anything else that risks impact, exposure to chemicals or heat. Simply exercise common sense.
  • Don't use a commercial cleaning solution until you have checked it is suitable for your gem.
  • Don't use ultrasonic or steam cleaners for every gem. Check the table below to see what gems are OK for these mechanical cleaners, but as a general rule, when in doubt, leave it out. Ultrasonic cleaners transmit vibrating energy waves to knock dirt off the jewellery, while steam cleaners use jets of steam to blast dirt off jewellery.
  • Don't use silverware polish to clean sterling jewellery. Apart from getting lodged in nooks and crannies, it is not gem friendly.

Actinolite (Cat's Eye Actinolite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Agate (Blue Lace Agate, Botswana Agate, Cat's Eye Brazilian Alexandrite, Dendritic Agate, Fire Agate, Glitter Agate, Green Agate, Moss Agate)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Keep away from heat and drying environments Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Alexandrite (Alexandrite, Brazilian Alexandrite, Cat's Eye Alexandrite, Cat's Eye Brazilian Alexandrite, Russian Alexandrite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Amazonite (Amazonite)

Enhancement Colourless oil or wax, paraffin or hardened resin and/or impregnated with colourless plastic or hardened resin Explanation Colourless oil and wax are usually applied, impregnation with colourless plastic or hardened resin is occasional. All improve appearance. Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Amber (Amber)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Heating is usually applied to improve appearance and/or colour intensity. Care instructions Clean by gently wiping with a moist cloth Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Amber (Dominican Blue Amber, Dominican Green Amber, Dominican Red Amber)

Enhancement Heated / Dyed - This resin has been processed by heat and pressure and may have been derived from copal. Explanation Heating is usually applied to improve appearance and/or colour intensity. Care instructions Clean by gently wiping with a moist cloth Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Amblygonite (Amblygonite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some gemstones can be damaged by thermal shock, do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Amethyst (Bi Colour Amethyst, Platina Amethyst, Rose de France Amethyst, Sunset Amethyst)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Occasionally used to lighten colour and/or remove smokiness Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Amethyst (Améthyste AAA de Wanda, Améthyste du Laos, Green Amethyst, Olive Amethyst, Rio Grande Green Amethyst)

Enhancement Irradiated and/or heated Explanation Usually applied to improve/provide colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Amethyst (AAA Amethyst, Bolivian Amethyst, Brejinho Amethyst, Nigerian Amethyst, Siberian Amethyst, Uruguayan Amethyst, Zambian Amethyst)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Ametrine (Ametrine, Sunburst Ametrine)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Rarely used to improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Ammolite (Ammolite)

Enhancement None Explanation Specially polished to improve colour. Care instructions Very fragile, handle with care! Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Andalusite (Andalusite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Andesine (AAA Andesine, Green Andesine, Red Andesin)

Enhancement Heated or/and diffused by using copper Explanation Occasionally used to improve or produce colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Angelite (Angelite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Anglesite (Anglesite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Very fragile, handle with care! Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Anglesite (Hawk's Eye)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Apatite (Apatite, Caribbean Blue Apatite, Diego Suarez Apatite, Lemon Apatite, Neon Blue Apatite, Porto Madeira Apatite, Royal blue Apatite)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Used in order to improve the appearance and/or intensify colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Apatite (AAA Red Apatite, Canadian Apatite, Chrome Apatite, Green Fluorapatite, Kenyan Apatite, Mintfarbener Fluorapatit, Red Apatite, Russian Apatite, Xia Apatite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Aquamarine (Cat's Eye Aquamarine)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Aquamarine (AAA Aquamarine, Aquamarine, Bauchi Aquamarine, Boca Rica Aquamarine, Pedra Azul Aquamarine, Santa Maria Aquamarine, Santa Teresa Aquamarine, Sao Domingos Aquamarine, Tatu Aquamarine)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Usually applied to remove yellow or green components to produce a pure blue colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Aragonite (Blauer Aragonit, Capillitas Aragonite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Aventurine (Aventurine)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Axinite (Axinite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Azurite (Azurite)

Enhancement Surface colourless waxing and/or impregnation with colourless plastic or hardened resin. Explanation Impregnation is rarely used, waxing is commonly used. All improve stability, durability, lustre and/or colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Benitoite (Benitoite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Beryl (Bixbite)

Enhancement colourless oil and resin Explanation Commonly used to improve appearance Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Beryl (Cat's Eye Heliodore)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some stones fade when exposed to strong light. Do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions. Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Beryl (Heliodor)

Enhancement Irradiated Explanation Usually applied to improve/provide colour. Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Beryl (Yellow Beryl)

Enhancement Heated or irradiated Explanation Usually applied to improve/provide colour. Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Beryl (Amazon Beryl, Beryl, Béryl fantaisie, Cat's eye Red Beryl, Himalayan Beryl, Imperial Beryl, Red Beryl, Russian Beryl, Seafoam Beryl)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Bloodstone (Bloodstone)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Bronzite (Bronzite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Calcite (Calcite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Very fragile, handle with care! Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Carnelian (Carnelian)

Enhancement Heated and/or dyed Explanation Dyeing is occasional, while heating is usual. All provide colour. Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Chalcedony (Pink Chalzedony)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Chalcedony (Angelite, Flintstone, Green Chalzedony, Turkish Chalcedony)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Chiasolite (Chiasolite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Chondrodite (Chondrodite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Chrysoberyl (Brazilian Chrysoberyl, Cat's Eye Chrysoberyl, Chrysoberyl, Tunduru Chrysoberyl, Vanadium Chrysoberyl)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Chrysocolla (chrysokoll)

Enhancement Surface colourless waxing and/or impregnation with colourless plastic or hardened resin. Explanation Occasionally used to improve appearance. Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Chrysoprase (Chrysoprase, Imperial Chrysoprase)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Cinnabarite (Cinnabarite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Citrine (Bi Colour Citrine, Lemon Citrine)

Enhancement Heated or irradiated Explanation Usually applied to provide colour. Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Citrine (AAA Citrin, Madeira Citrine, Mandarin Citrine)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Usually applied to provide colour. Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Clinohumite (Clinohumite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Cuprite (Cuprite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Very fragile, handle with care! Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Danburite (Danburite)

Enhancement Irradiated Explanation Commonly used to improve appearance Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Danburite (Cat's Eye Danburite, Neon Yellow Danburite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Danburite (Pink Danburite, White Danburite)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Commonly used to improve appearance Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Demantoid (Ambanja-Demantoid, Demantoid, Namibia-Demantoid)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some gemstones can be damaged by thermal shock, do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Diamond (Champagne Diamond)

Enhancement Keine, Bestrahlen und / oder Erhitzen Explanation Used to improve colour intensity or to produce unique colours. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Diamond (Argyle Champagne Diamond, Argyle Champagne Diamond, Argyle Fancy Diamond, IF (D) Diamond, SI Argyle Fancy Diamond, VS Argyle Champagne Diamond, VS Argyle Fancy Diamond, VS1 (D) Diamond, VS1 (E) Diamond, VS1 (F) Diamond, VS1 (G) Diamond, VS1 (H) Diamond, VS2 (D) Diamond, VS2 (F) Diamond, VVS Argyle Champagne Diamond, VVS Argyle Fancy Diamond, VVS Diamond, VVS1 (E) Diamond, VVS1 (G) Diamond, VVS2 (D) Diamond, VVS2 (E) Diamond)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Diamond (Black Diamond, Blue Diamond, Champagne Diamond, Cognac Diamond, Emerald Green Diamond, Forrest Green Diamond, Green Diamond, Orange Cognac Diamond, Pink Diamond, Red Cognac Diamond, Red Diamond, Royal Blue Diamond, SI Cognac Diamond, SI Pink Diamond, SI Red Diamond, SI1 Pink Diamond, Sky Blue Diamond, VS1 Diamond, VS1 Orange Diamond, VS2 Orange Diamond, VVS2 Blue Diamond, Yellow Diamond, Yellow Gold Diamond, Yellow SI1 Diamond)

Enhancement Irradiated and/or heated Explanation Used to improve colour intensity or to produce unique colours. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Diopside (Russian Diopside, Star Diopside)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Dumortierite (Dumortierite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Emerald (Trapiché Emerald)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Emerald (AAA Bahia Emerald, AAA Russian Emerald, Bahia Emerald, Muzo Colombian Emerald, Sao Francisco Emerald, Socoto Emerald, Transvaal Emerald)

Enhancement colourless oil. Explanation Infusions of colourless oil is a common method to improve appearance. Care instructions These enhancements can be damaged by some solvents and thermal shock. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Emerald (AAA Brazilian Emerald, AAA Emerald, AAA Nova Era Emerald, AAA Nova Era Emerald, AAA Zambian Emerald, Colombian Emerald, La Pita Emerald, Panjshir Emerald, Russian Emerald, Zambian Emerald)

Enhancement Filled fissure with colourless oil, plastic, wax or resin. Colour enhancement with dyed oils. Filled fractures or cavities with synthetic resin. Explanation Commonly used to improve appearance Care instructions These enhancements can be damaged by some solvents and thermal shock. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Epidote (Epidote)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Eudialyte (Eudialyte)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Fluorite (Blue Fluorite, Green Fluorite, Mint Fluorite, Pink Fluorite, Purpur-Fluorit, Red Fluorite, Serrana Fluorite, Yellow Fluorite)

Enhancement Irradiated Explanation Commonly used to provide colour. Care instructions Some gems can crack if they lose structural water. Keep away from heat and drying environments! Do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Some stones fade when exposed to strong light. Do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Fluorite (Bi Colour Fluorite, Capillitas Fluorite, Carribean Teal Fluorite, Colour Change Fluorite, Cumbrian Fluorite, Esperanza Fluorite, Namibian Mint Fluorite, Spanish Fluorite, White Fluorite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some gems can crack if they lose structural water. Keep away from heat and drying environments! Do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Some stones fade when exposed to strong light. Do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Fossil (Crinoid-Fossil)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Extreme temperature changes can damage the gemstones. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Gahnit (Gahnit)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Garnet (AAA Spessartite, AAA Tsavorite, Ambanja-Demantoid, Blue Colour Change Garnet, Brazilian Rhodolite, Cinnamon Garnet, Colour Change Garnet, Cuamba Garnet, Demantoid, Garnet, Hessonite, Imperial Garnet, Kamtonga Colour Change Garnet, Madagascar Demantoid, Magenta Garnet, Malaya Garnet, Merelani Mint Garnet, Mozambique Garnet, Namibia-Demantoid, Rajasthan Rhodolite, Rasberry Rhodolite, Rhodolite, Spessartite, Star Garnet, Tangerin Garnet, Tsavorite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some gemstones can be damaged by thermal shock, do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Goshenite (Cat's Eye Goshenite, Goshenite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Hawk's Eye (Hawk's Eye)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Heliodor (Cat's Eye Heliodore)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some stones fade when exposed to strong light. Do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions. Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Heliodor (Heliodor)

Enhancement Irradiated Explanation Usually applied to improve/provide colour. Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Hematite (Hematite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Hemimorphite (Hemimorphite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Hiddenit (Hiddenit)

Enhancement Irradiated Explanation Rarely used to provide colour and colour uniformity. Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Howlite (Blue Howlite)

Enhancement Dyed Explanation Commonly used to imitate Turquoise or Lapis Lazuli. Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Howlite (Howlite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Idocrase (Idocrase, Vesuvianite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Indicolite (Indogolith)

Enhancement Natural or heated and/or irradiated Explanation Usually applied to provide/improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Indicolite (Bi Colour Mutuca Indicolite, Cat's Eye Mutuca Indicolite, Mutuca Indicolite)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Usually applied to provide/improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Iolite (Ceylon Iolite, Iolite, Madagascar Iolite, Orissa Iolite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Jade (Jadeite)

Enhancement Colourless polymer impregnation and/or polymer impregnation followed by acid treatment and/or dyed. Explanation Commonly used provide colour and colour uniformity. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Jade (Nephrite)

Enhancement Dyed and/or impregnated with colourless oil, wax or hardened resin Explanation Rarely used to provide colour and colour uniformity. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Jade (Australian Jade, Canadian Jade, Cat's Eye Nephrite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Jasper (Bumble Bee Jasper, Dalmatian Jasper, Noreena Jasper, Peanut Jasper, Pilbara Jasper)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Jasper (Leopard Jasper, Ocean Jasper, Picture Jasper, Red Jasper, Sunflower Jasper, Turtella Jasper)

Enhancement Dyed Explanation Commonly used to imitate other gemstones Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Kornerupine (Kornerupine)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Kunzite (Patroke Kunzite)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Commonly used to improve and/or darken colour Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Kunzite (AAA Brazilian Kunzite, Bi Colour Kunzite, Champagne Kunzite, Yellow Kunzite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some stones fade when exposed to strong light. Do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions. Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Kunzite (Green Kunzite, Mint Kunzite, White Kunzite, Yellow Kunzite)

Enhancement Heated or irradiated Explanation Commonly used to improve and/or darken colour Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Kyanite (Kyanite, Mint Kyanite, Peacock Kyanite, Tibetan Kyanite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Labradorite (Labradorite)

Enhancement Surface colourless waxing Explanation Occasionally used to improve appearance. Care instructions Some stones fade when exposed to strong light. Do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Lapis Lazuli (Lapis Lazuli)

Enhancement Surface colourless waxing and/or dyed Explanation Usually applied to provide colour and/or colour uniformity. Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Larimar (Larimar)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Clean with a non-abrasive jewellery cleaner and one that is rated for pearls Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Malachite (Malachite)

Enhancement Surface colourless waxing and/or impregnated with colourless plastic or hardened resin Explanation Impregnation with colourless plastic (or hardened resin) is rare, while surface colourless waxing is common and/or coating with colourless wax is occasional. All Improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Marcasite (Marcasite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Mesolite (Mesolite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Moldavite (Moldavite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Mookite (Mookite)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Polishing of the gemstone after heating Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Moonstone (AAA Moonstone, AAA Rainbow Moonstone, Blauer Ceylon-Mondschein, Cat's Eye Ceylon Moonstone, Cat's Eye Moonstone, Ceylon Moonstone, Ceylon-Regenbogen-Mondstein, Green Moonstone, Moonstone, Rainbow Moonstone, White Moonstone)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Morganite (AAA Hot Pink Morganite, AAA Madagascan Morganite, AAA-Peach Morganite, Bi Colour Morganite, Morganite, Nigerian Morganite)

Enhancement Heated or irradiated Explanation Commonly used to eliminate yellow overtones. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Mother of Pearl (Mother of Pearl)

Enhancement Dyed, bleached or coated. Explanation Occasionally used to change, improve the colour and/or colour uniformity. Care instructions Clean by gently wiping with a moist cloth Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Obsidian (Gold Obsidian, Mahagoni Obsidian, Snowflake Obsidian)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Onyx (Sardonyx)

Enhancement Dyed Explanation Usually applied to improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Onyx (Stripe Onyx)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Onyx (Black Onyx, Onyx)

Enhancement Dyed Explanation Always used to improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Opal (Machu Picchu Opal)

Enhancement Infusion of unhardened colourless substances into voids. Explanation Occasionally used to improve appearance. Care instructions Some gems can crack if they lose structural water. Keep away from heat and drying environments! Do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Some stones fade when exposed to strong light. Do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Opal (Matrix Opal)

Enhancement Heated with organic substances Explanation Used to improve appearance Care instructions Some gems can crack if they lose structural water. Keep away from heat and drying environments! Do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Some stones fade when exposed to strong light. Do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Opal (AAA Welo Opal, Andamooka Opal, Black Opal, Blue Fire Opal, Blue Madagascar Opale, Blue Opal, Boulder Opal, Buriti Fire Opal, Caribbean Opal, Cat's Eye Opal, Coober Pedy-Opal, Fire Opal, Green Fire Opal, Ice Opal, Indonesian Opal, Jelly Opal, Kalimaya Opal, Kenyaian Opal, Lightning Ridge Black Opal, Lightning Ridge-Opal, Los Labos Opal, Mexican Fire Opal, Mezezo Opal, Paraiba Opal, Pink Opal, Queretaro Cherry Fire Opal, Salamanca Fire Opal, Semi Black Opal, Welo Opal, White Opal, Yellow Opal, Yellow Opal)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some gems can crack if they lose structural water. Keep away from heat and drying environments! Do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Some stones fade when exposed to strong light. Do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Orthoclase (Orthoclase)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Pearl (Mabe Pearl)

Enhancement A Mabe Pearl is a hemispherical shaped Pearl that is grown against the inside of the oyster's shell and is cut out of the shell with a circle-bit drill. The nucleus is replaced with resin and the back capped with a piece of Mother of Pearl. It can also be bleached, dyed, chemically treated or irradiated. These Pearls are classified as composite gemstones. Explanation Is used for manufacturing. Further optional enhancements are occasionally used to improve colour and/or change colour and/or colour uniformity. Care instructions Clean by gently wiping with a moist cloth Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Pearl (Freshwater pearl, Golden South Sea Pearl, Imperial Pearl, Silver South Sea Pearl, South Sea Pearl, Tahitian Pearl, White South Sea Pearl)

Enhancement Bleached, dyed, chemically enhanced or irradiated. Most perls are cultured. Explanation Occasionally used to change, improve the colour and/or colour uniformity. Care instructions Clean by gently wiping with a moist cloth Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Peridot (Arizona Peridot)

Enhancement "Erhitzen und / oder Befüllen der Risse und Hohlräume mit farblosem Öl, Wachs und Harz. Explanation Occasionally used to improve appearance. Care instructions Some gemstones can be damaged by thermal shock, do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Peridot (Kashmir Peridot, Manchurian Peridot, Zabargad Peridot)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some gemstones can be damaged by thermal shock, do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Petalite (Petalite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Pezzottaite (Cat's Eye Pezzottaite, Pezzottaite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Phenakite (Phenakite )

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Phosphosiderite (Phosphosiderite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Pietersite (Pietersite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Prehnite (Prehnite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Psilomelane (Psilomelane)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Quartz (Dinosaur Bone)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some gemstones can be damaged by thermal shock, do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Quartz (Rainbow Quartz)

Enhancement Irradiated, heated, PVD coated Explanation Usually applied to improve/intensify colour or produce unique colours. Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) is an oxide enhancement that uses optical interference to produce a variety of colours by applying a bonded layer of fine titanium atoms to a gemstone (U.S. Patent Number 5,853,826 for Azotic Coating Technologies Inc.). Care instructions Coated or surface-treated gemstones can not be re-cut or re-polished. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Quartz (Champagne Quartz, Cognac Quartz, Mocha Quartz, Olive Quartz, Smoky Quartz)

Enhancement Irradiated and/or heated Explanation Usually applied to provide/improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Quartz (Amazon Quartz, Banana Quartz, Bi Colour Quartz, Blue Moon Quartz, Blueberry Quartz, Lily Quartz, Ouro Verde Quartz, White Quartz)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Usually applied to provide/improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Quartz (Black Glitter Quartz, Bronze Glitter Quartz, Cobalt Blue Glitter Quartz, Cuprian Glitter Quartz, Flamingo Glitter Quartz, Golden Glitter Quartz, Green Glitter Quartz, Neptune Glitter Quartz, Peach Glitter Quartz, Pearl Glitter Quartz, Pearl Glitter Quartz, Pink Glitter Quartz, Platinum Glitter Quartz, Purpur Glitter Quartz, Silver Glitter Quartz, Titan Blue Glitter Quartz)

Enhancement Heated, irradiated or PVD coated Explanation Usually applied to improve/intensify colour or produce unique colours. Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) is an oxide enhancement that uses optical interference to produce a variety of colours by applying a bonded layer of fine titanium atoms to a gemstone (U.S. Patent Number 5,853,826 for Azotic Coating Technologies Inc.). Care instructions Avoid bringing into contact with alcohol or other chemical substances. Wash with a damp cloth with as little water as possible. Also keep away from heat. Coated or surface-treated gemstones can not be re-cut and re-polished. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Quartz (Blue Mystik Quartz, Bordeaux Quartz, Cherry Quartz, Cobalt Blue Quartz, Fire Quartz, Flamingo Quartz, Gentiana Quartz, Golden Quartz, Jungle Quartz, Lotus Quartz, Marrequinho Quartz, Moonlight Quartz, Mystik Quartz, Neon Yellow Quartz, Neptune Quartz, Spring Quartz)

Enhancement PVD coated Explanation Usually applied to improve/intensify colour or produce unique colours. Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) is an oxide enhancement that uses optical interference to produce a variety of colours by applying a bonded layer of fine titanium atoms to a gemstone (U.S. Patent Number 5,853,826 for Azotic Coating Technologies Inc.). Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions. Coated or surface-treated gemstones can not be re-cut or re-polished. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Quartz (Angelandia Rose Quartz, Black Ceylon Rutile Quartz, Black Estrelita Cat's Eye Quartz, Black Estrelita Star Quartz, Black Rutile Quartz, Cat's Eye Rutile Quartz, Dendritic Quartz, Dragonfly Quartz, Estrelita Cat's Eye Quartz, Estrelita Star Quartz, Estrelita Star Rose Quartz, Feather Quartz, Graffiti Quartz, Hematoid-Quartz, Icemoon Quartz, Medusa Quartz, Milky Quartz, Mutuca Rutile Quartz, Phantom Quartz, Prince Quartz, Rose Quartz, Rutile Quartz, Strawberry Quartz, Tourmalinated Quartz)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Quartzite (Quartzite)

Enhancement Dyed and/or impregnated with colourless plastic or hardened resin Explanation Occasionally used to improve appearance. Care instructions None Steam cleaning Ultrasonic cleaning

Rhodochrosite (Rhodochrosite, Sweet Home Rhodochrosite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Rhodolite (Brazilian Rhodolite, Rajasthan Rhodolite, Rasberry Rhodolite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some gemstones can be damaged by thermal shock, do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Rhodonite (Rhodonite)

Enhancement Natural or dyed Explanation Occasionally used to achieve colour uniformity. Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Rubellite (AAA Cruzeiro Rubellite, Cuprian Rubellite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Rubellite (Brazilian Rubellite, Rubellite)

Enhancement Natural or heated and/or irradiated Explanation Usually applied to provide/improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Rubellite (Cat's Eye Shimoyo Rubellite, Cat's eye Rubellite, Nigerian Rubellite, Shimoyo Rubellite)

Enhancement None or occasional irradiation Explanation Only 10 % of Shimoyo Rubellite have been irradiated to improve their colour. Irradiated Tourmaline is almost impossible to detect and is therefore generally regarded as not impacting value. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Ruby (Kenyan Ruby, Vietnamesian Ruby)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Usually applied to provide/improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Ruby (Karnataka Star Ruby, Orissa Star Ruby, Star Ruby (unheated))

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Ruby (AAA Tanzanian Ruby, Malawi Ruby, Sunset Ruby, Tanzanian Ruby)

Enhancement Heated and/or the healing of fissures and/or filled open cavities with certain additives (beryllium) Explanation Usually applied to provide, intensify or improve colour and/or uniformity of colour. Care instructions These gems may have fillers in cavities/voids, fissures and/or open fractures that can scratch more easily than the gem itself as well as being more vulnerable to damage from heat or some solvents. Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Ruby (Madagascar Ruby, Mozambique Cat's Eye Ruby, Mozambique Ruby, Mozambique Star Ruby, Star Ruby)

Enhancement Heated and/or the healing of fissures/cavities with (a high refractive index) lead-glass or with certain additives (beryllium). Explanation Always used to improve colour intensity, to lighten colour and/or colour uniformity. The lead-glass is usually yellow to orange and artificially augments the red colour of these gems as well as potentially adding weight. Care instructions These gems may have fillers in cavities/voids, fissures and/or open fractures that can scratch more easily than the gem itself as well as being more vulnerable to damage from heat or some solvents. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Sapphire (AAA Tansania Sapphire)

Enhancement Heated (heated in a beryllium environment and may contain traces of beryllium) Explanation Usually applied to provide colour and/or colour uniformity. Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Sapphire (Burmese Sapphire, Laos Sapphire, Pink Ceylon Sapphire)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Usually applied to provide/improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Sapphire (AAA Ceylon Sapphire, Blue Star Sapphire, Ceylon Sapphire, Chanthaburi Sapphire, Inverell Sapphire, Mambila Sapphire, Padparadscha Sapphire, Pailin Sapphire, Tanzanian Sapphire)

Enhancement Heated (heated in a beryllium environment and may contain traces of beryllium) Explanation Usually applied to provide/improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Sapphire (12 pointed Black Star Sapphire, 12 pointed Golden Star Sapphire, AAA Black Star Sapphire, AAA Imperial Sapphire, Bi Colour Sapphire, Black Sapphire, Black Star Sapphire, Ceylon Black Star Sapphire, Ceylon Star Sapphire, Peacock Sapphire, Purple Ceylon Sapphire, White Star Sapphire)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Sapphire (Blue Sapphire, Colour Change Sapphire, Fancy Sapphire, Golden Star Sapphire, Green Sapphire, Kanchanaburi Sapphire, Midnight Blue Sapphire, Orange Sapphire, Padparadscha Colour Sapphire, Pink Sapphire, Sunset Sapphire, Yellow Sapphire)

Enhancement Heated and/or the healing of fissures and/or filled open cavities with certain additives (beryllium) Explanation Usually applied to provide colour or colour uniformity, to intensify or lighten colour. Care instructions These gems may have fillers in cavities/voids, fissures and/or open fractures that can scratch more easily than the gem itself as well as being more vulnerable to damage from heat or some solvents. Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Sard (Sard)

Enhancement Dyed or heated Explanation Dyeing is occasional, while heating is usual. All provide colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Scapolite (Burmese Scapolite, Cat's Eye Scapolite, Pink Skapolite, Scapolite, Yellow Scapolite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some stones fade when exposed to strong light. Do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions. Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Scheelite (Scheelite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Seraphinite (Seraphinite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Very fragile, handle with care! Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Serpentine (Serpentine)

Enhancement Natural or dyed and/or impregnated with colourless plastic or hardened resin Explanation Occasionally used to improve appearance. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Shell (Abalone Shell)

Enhancement Dyed Explanation Commonly used to improve colour. Care instructions Some perls fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose the perls to these conditions . Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Sillimanite (Cat's Eye Sillimanite, Sillimanite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Sinhalite (Sinhalite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Sodalite (Sodalite)

Enhancement Dyed Explanation Rarely used to improve colour. Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Spectrolite (Spectrolite)

Enhancement Surface colourless waxing Explanation Occasionally used to improve appearance. Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Spessartite (Spessartite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Extreme temperature changes can damage the gemstones. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Sphalerite (Sphalerite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Very fragile, handle with care! Steam cleaning Ultrasonic cleaning

Sphene (Capelinha Sphene, Russian Sphen, Sphene)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Spinel (Black Spinel, Blue Spinel, Cobalt Spinel, Fancy Spinel, Lavender Spinel, Noble Red Spinel, Pamir Spinel, Pink Spinel, Purple Spinel, Spinel, Star Spinel)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Sugilite (Sugilite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Sunstone (Cat's Eye Sunstone, Oregon Sunstone, Silver Sunstone, Star Sunstone)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some gemstones can be damaged by thermal shock, do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Taaffeite (Taaffeite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Tanzanite (AAA Tanzanite, Tanzanite)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Usually applied to provide/improve colour. Care instructions Some gemstones can be damaged by thermal shock, do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Tanzanite (Bi Colour Tanzanite, Cat's Eye Tanzanite, Chameleon Tanzanite, Emerald green Tanzanite, Fancy Tanzanite, Green Tanzanite, Neon Tanzanite, Pink Tanzanite, Tanzanite, Yellow Tanzanite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some gemstones can be damaged by thermal shock, do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Tektite (Tektite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Clean by gently wiping with a moist cloth Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Tiger Iron (Tiger Iron)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Tigers Eye (Red Tigers Eye)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Tigers Eye (Tigers Eye)

Enhancement Dyed, bleached or heated Explanation Commonly used to improve colour. Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning Ultrasonic cleaning

Topaz (London Blue Topaz, Marambaia Topaz, Ocean Topaz, Sky Blue Topaz, Swiss Blue Topaz)

Enhancement Irradiated and/or heated Explanation Usually applied to provide and/or improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Topaz (AAA Imperial Topaz, Glacier Topaz, Imperial Katlang Topaz, Imperial Topaz, Ukranian Topaz, White Topaz)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Topaz (Aurora Topaz, Azur Topaz, Blue Mystik Topaz, Blue Topaz, Canari Topaz, Canari Yellow Topaz, Chameleon Topaz, Champagne Topaz, Cherry Topaz, Chocolate Topaz, Cobalt Blue Topaz, Cranberry Topaz, Fire Topaz, Flamingo Topaz, Golden Topaz, Grape Topaz, Iris Topaz, Jungle Topaz, Kiwi Topaz, Lime Topaz, Maracuja Topaz, Marrequinho Topaz, Moonlight Topaz, Moonlight Topaz, Mystic Topaz, Neon Blue Mystik Topaz, Neptune Topaz, Ocean Topaz, Orange Topaz, Orchid Topaz, Paradise Topaz, Paraíba Topas, Pazific Topaz, Periwinkle Topaz, Pink Topaz, Rainbow Topaz, Rose Topaz, Seafoam Topaz, Spring Topaz, Sunset Mystic Topaz, Sunset Topaz, Sunset Topaz, Vanilla Topaz, Watermelon Topaz)

Enhancement Heating, PVD Coating Explanation Usually applied to improve/intensify colour or produce unique colours. Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) is an oxide enhancement that uses optical interference to produce a variety of colours by applying a bonded layer of fine titanium atoms to a gemstone (U.S. Patent Number 5,853,826 for Azotic Coating Technologies Inc.). Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions. Coated or surface-treated gemstones can not be re-cut or re-polished. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Tourmaline (Cat's Eye Shimoyo Rubellite, Shimoyo Rubellite)

Enhancement None or occasional irradiation Explanation Only 10 % of Shimoyo Rubellite have been irradiated to improve their colour. Irradiated Tourmaline is almost impossible to detect and is therefore generally regarded as not impacting value. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Tourmaline (Bi Colour Mutuca Indicolite, Cat's Eye Mutuca Indicolite, Itatiaia Tourmaline , Mutuca Indicolite, Oyo Tourmaline, Santa Rosa Tourmaline)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Usually applied to provide/improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Tourmaline (AAA Cruzeiro Rubellite, Bi Colour Namibian Tourmaline, Bi Colour Tourmaline, Bicolour Itatiaia Tourmaline, Black Tourmaline, Blue Green Sapo Tourmaline, Canary Tourmaline, Cat's Eye Pirineu Tourmaline, Cat's Eye Tourmaline, Chrome Tourmaline, Colourchange Chrome Tourmaline, Green Namibian Tourmaline, Himalaya Tourmaline, Imperial Chrome Tourmaline, Kunar Valley Tourmaline, Mint Pirineu Tourmaline, Mint Tourmaline, Olive Tourmaline, Pink Cuprian Tourmaline, Pink Sapo Tourmaline, Pirineu Tourmaline, Red Sapo Tourmaline, Watermelon Tourmaline)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Tourmaline (AAA Paraíba Tourmaline, Bi Colour Cuprian Tourmaline, Brazilian Paraíba Tourmaline, Brazilian Rubellite, Canari Cuprian Tourmaline, Cat's Eye Paraiba Tourmaline, Cat's eye Rubellite, Cruzeiro-Rubellit, Cuprian Rubellite, Cuprian Tourmaline, Imperial Cuprian Tourmaline, Indicolite, Morro Redondo Pink Tourmaline, Morro Redondo Tourmaline, Mozambique Tourmaline, Namibian Tourmaline, Neon Cuprian Tourmaline, Neon Cuprian Tourmaline, Neon-Turmalin, Nigerian Pink Tourmaline, Nigerian Rubellite, Paraíba Tourmaline, Pink Brasilian Tourmaline, Pink Tourmaline, Rose Nigerian Rubellite, Rubellite, Sunset Cuprian Tourmaline, Yellow Cuprian Tourmaline)

Enhancement Natural or heated and/or irradiated Explanation Usually applied to provide/improve colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Tsavorite (Tsavorite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions Some gemstones can be damaged by thermal shock, do not expose to extreme temperature changes. Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Turquoise (Blue Turquoise)

Enhancement Constructed/impregnated with plastic and/or surface colourless waxing and/or dyed. Explanation Dyeing is rare, while impregnation with colourless plastic and surface colourless waxing is common. All improve stability, durability, lustre and/or colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Turquoise (Kingman Turquoise)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Turquoise (Purpur Turquoise, South Western Turquoise)

Enhancement Impregnation with plastic and/or surface colourless waxing Explanation Impregnation is rarely used, waxing is commonly used. All improve stability, durability, lustre and/or colour. Care instructions None Steam cleaning no Ultrasonic cleaning no

Unakit (Unakit)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Zircon (Cinnamon Zircon, Pink Zircon)

Enhancement Natural or heated Explanation Used in order to enhance the colour Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Zircon (Bi Colour Zircon, Brauner Zirkon, Chocolate Zircon, Green Zircon, Imperial Zircon, Orange Mahewa Zircon, Orange Zircon, Saffron Zircon)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Zircon (AAA Ratanakiri Zircon, Blue Zircon, Canari Zircon, Fancy Zircon, Imperial Zircon, Kaduna Zircon, Pink Zircon, Preah Vihear Zircon, Ratanakiri Zircon, Red Zircon, White Zircon)

Enhancement Heated Explanation Always used to improve colour. Care instructions Some gemstones may fade or revert to their original colour when exposed to strong light, do not unnecessarily expose gemstones to these conditions! Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no

Zoisit (Ruby in Zoisite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning yes

Zultanite (Cat's Eye Zultanite, Zultanite)

Enhancement None Explanation Without explanation Care instructions None Steam cleaning yes Ultrasonic cleaning no
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